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Women in Men’s Jobs

Of course there should be equal pay for equal work. Of course any qualified person should be seriously considered for any position. Also, there are obviously still discriminations. The idea itself of a woman leading an international firm makes men reluctant. And yet, more and more women dare to have a “men” job !

Who are these women who do men’s job?

There are women and proud to be, they even claim it! They work men’s job and succeed. They have a strong character and, in their position, this is essential!

They are cooks, engineer racing, bus driver or geologist. Traditional male jobs, but they have proven themselves. Today they are respected by their colleagues, and admired by their relatives. But there are still a minority.

The jobs have a sex?

The question could be an essay topic. If we stick to the figures from INSEE (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies), there is no debate possible. The answer is yes. According to the organization, more than half of working women in France are concentrated in six occupational categories, among the thirty existing. These correspond to occupations in social services to individuals, health care (example: nurses) and education. Areas identified as least porters, less profitable and which one provides the least amount of training … In the top 5 most feminized occupations, INSEE quote: maternal assistant (99% of women in the profession), Secretary (97%), caregiver (91%), nurse, midwife (87%) and administrative staff in business (76%). Among the less feminized occupations, we find drivers (5%), skilled worker handling (7%), supervisor or foreman (9%), skilled manual craft workers (10%) and technicians (13 %). In addition, there is still less than 20% of entrepreneurs female.

Why such a gap?

Firstly because we can not rewrite history … The masculine image of an area is often due to the fact that it has long been reserved for men (this is the case for the building, the military, oil, etc..). “Today there are more men in technical and scientific professions as men recruit more men. Some were” afraid “of losing their place,”. Education and the traditional image returned so far by the family also play a lot. “The pink and dolls for girls. Blue and cars for boys. If parents gave trucks for girls to play, it would change things already …,” The pressure does not always come from professional colleagues … “I’ve seen where a woman went from a hairdresser to that of mason, a mother, whose neighbor and the other mothers at school wondered if she was gay or looking for a husband. “Prejudices are sometimes sharp tongue.

We must recognize that men and women are different

Not in their abilities but in their deepest aspirations. “For example, women are more human, communicating, sensitive, rigorous. Men are more gung-ho, more technical, obsessed with goals. Of course, these are big trends. Each individual is different,”. Some also refer to physiological reasons as a barrier to the mix. “This is not … When you know that a caregiver can raise only one patient in the hospital,” retorted Anne-Sophie Berche, project manager at the mix of business MIFE (House Information on training and employment). For her, as for others, all trades are mixed. Men and women can have the same skills.

Despite popular belief, some do not hesitate to engage in business called “male”. Who are these pioneers? In reality, there is no typical profile. They are neither feminists nor tomboys. “These are girls bold, open, able to withstand spikes sometimes unconscious, stubborn”. Women who show a strong character, to whom one asks twice to prove themselves, women who often get along better with men. “These are women who have psychologies of men, with nothing pejorative about that. They are Cartesian, direct, oriented towards less machinery and the relational,” Pascal Priou analysis, work psychologist.

Positive movement

Just like the professional, more and more women (and men) go against prejudice. As proof, some jobs (administrative, sales executive, legal professional, part of banking and insurance or medical), become more feminine, according to INSEE. New sectors such as information technology, benefit from a less gendered image. Cause and consequence of this movement, working conditions (schedules, ergonomic equipment, services for employees in companies …) are also changing. Result: everyone benefits and differences between the sexes decreases. “There among the younger generations homogenization of intellectual and psychological. Presumably in the future policy choices should be closer,” says Pascal Priou. On this point, the school has a great role to play, and very early. “But the trap is to believe that the battle is over,” says Anne-Sophie Berche.

Still progress to make

Much progress must be provided particularly on the issue of wages. Even today, men earn 25% more than women. As we have said, they choose jobs less empowering, less profitable and are more likely to work part time. They are often hampered when motherhood. Furthermore, “they less dare to discuss, to negotiate.” The remaining 10-15% of cases of unexplained differences completely by INSEE … In pure discrimination? Large groups, such as PSA, nevertheless produced efforts to achieve a better balance. Under these conditions, why still hesitate? “Be ambitious. Do not listen to those around you always. Listen to the testimonies of women who have embarked, Marie-Sophie Pawlak encouraged. It must not giving up a profession of ignorance, just a matter of envy “.

Go Girls!

Sexually yours! — posted by Eva

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Be(com)ing a woman?

What is being a woman:  something we are or something we become?
A question in the heart of the feminist debate for a long time. Simone de Beauvoir answered to it: for her, we “become woman”.Image
I have no answer to tell the truth but recently I viewed two reports which brought me to think about this question. The specificity of these documentaries was their angle of approach of the gender and the sex (and not of the sexuality).
The first one, scheduled on arte but at present unavailable on Web. It deals with the intersexuality (persons having no “defined” biological sex). During several years not to say decades, we imposed “surgically” to the intersexual children a sex in the birth and we raised them according to the sex which had been given to them. This initiative was impulsed by the works of Dr John MEYNE who thought that the gender was not determined by the sex but by the education.
Yet, numerous intersexual persons rebel henceforth against this system which had a fatal influence on Imagetheir life. They did not feel in sync with the sex they have been attributed. Today, the science supposes that the gender would be defined neither by the biological sex, nor by the education but by the brain. In parallel, the report followed the life of an intersexual person about five years old who the parents raised in a neutral way, letting her/him choose if he/she was a boy or a girl. Now the child did not seem decided to choose a gender. The report suggested that the choice came generally with the adolescence.
The second scheduled on France 4 deals with the transsexuality. This report has a more human and more opened approach. Two things were particularly interesting.
The first one is to see men and women raised according to their biological sex but with the feeling of another sex. The second is a couple among which the one is transgenre, that is hehas man’s sex, lives with a woman but alternates the male and feminine gender.
For me, the gender was a “social construction “. And I thought that the society inculcates us values (the sweetness, the maternity, the sensualism) on which we build our gender and thus our personality. But it is interesting and disconcerting to become aware that the human being can define himself man or woman without taking into account necessarily the biological sex or the education. If we envisage this hypothesis, the social gender can be deconstructed but there would be the other thing which would make us feel man or woman. Is the gender only social? Only biological? Only cerebral? Or maybe a mixture of all this …

Sexualy yours!

Audrey

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Fenimism in France

Hi Followers,

In this article, I decided to spread the light on the history of Feminism in France and to make a small summary of the most important women in this movement.

A few important women…

In France, the feminism was already began with Christine de Pizan, in the Middle Age. She was born in 1364 in Venise but this Italian woman grew up in France. She is not considered as feminist in the modern way but still, she is fighting for the image of women who were at that time totally belittled by men. But she is not standing up to change the patriarchal structure or the ethic of the society where she lives. She is even advocating   chastity and patience, thoughts which are not shared with modern feminists. De Pizan thinks that the difference between men and women is due to education and not to Nature.

Simone de Beauvoir est née en 1908 à Paris. She is nowadays considered as one of the most important woman of the XXst century and there is a reason for this. She became famous mostly because of her work and particularly, her book “The second sex”.  She describes a society where women are inferior to men. She dared to talk about maternity and above all abortion, act which was considered as homicide at that time.
With Gisele Halimi and Elisabeth Badinter, they wrote the “Manifest of the 343”. And with Gisèle, they created the move “Choisir” which was a big step for abortion

.

Monique Witting was born in 1935 in Dannemarie. She is one of the founders of the “Mouvement de Libération des femmes”.  With some women, she went to put a bouquet on the unknown soldier’s tomb and this movement was considered as the beginning of the feminist movement in France.

She thinks that women are composing a social class and that their wills are opposed to men’s one.  For her, the marriage is just a way for a husband to exploit his wife.

A few historical facts…

Feminism is France was marked by both continuity and shifts.

The Industrial Revolution helped the women from all the classes to organize and so the Feminist movement was able to grow. But the major changes were made after the Second World War.
The biggest event probably occurred in 1944 when women obtained the Right to vote. A big step for the gender equality.

Then, after the Second World War, a few women writers had influence over the feminist movement: Simone de Beauvoir (Le Second Sexe), Monique Wittig (Les Guerriers), Julia Kristeva (Les Chinoises) or Hélène Cixous (Le Rire de la Méduse).

A new wave of Feminism started on 1968, when girl students and workers got together. The image of women was changed with this movement of liberation.  1970 really marked the beginning of the “Mouvement de Libération des Femmes” (MLF). A lot of women decided to join this movement and to fight for their rights.
During the 1971 summer, women decided to walk form the Bastille to Place de la Nation is order to ask for contraceptive but also for free abortion for women. In 1974, the abortion was finally allowed in France thanks to Simone Veil who was Minister of Health at that time.

Nowadays, the fight for the Gender equality is still on and more and more women are joining the movement all around the world.

_ Sexually yours ! 

Posted by Marie

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A New Masculinity — Men Can and Do Mother

Daddy leave in Sweden

From central Stockholm to villages south of the Arctic Circle, 85percent of Swedish fathers now take parental leave. As other countries still tinker with maternity leave and women’s rights, Sweden may be a glimpse of the future.

For nearly four decades, Swedish governments of all political hues have legislated to give women equal rights at work-and men equal rights at home. This political engineering, along with a generous social welfare system, has begun to change the definition of masculinity.

Swedish law provides incentives for fathers to use a portion of the generously paid, 13-month parental leave given to families.The law also levies penalties for fathers who do not take leave. A 1995 “daddy leave” provision amended the provision so that on father was forced to take leave, but a family lost one month of subsidies if he did no. A second “father” month was added to parental leave in 2002, while the change only marginally increased the number of men taking leave, it more than doubled the amount of time they take. Eight in 10 fathers now take a third of the total 13 months of leave.

The sharing of child-rearing duties at home may also help explain why divorce and separation rates in Sweden have dropped since 1995 at a time when divorce rates elsewhere have risen, according to the national statistics office.

Other countries

While Sweden, with nine million people, made a strategic decision to get more women into the work force in the booming 1960s, other countries imported more immigrant men. As populations in Europe decline and new labor shortages loom, countries have studied the Swedish model, said Peter Moss an expert on leave policies at the University of London’s Institute of Education.

The United States — with lower taxes and traditional wariness of state meddling in family affairs — is not among them. Portugal is the only country where paternity leave is mandatory — but only for a week. Iceland has arguably gone furthest, reserving three months for father, three months for mother and allowing parents to share another three months.

The trend is, however, no longer limited to small countries. Germany, with nearly 82 million people, in 2007 tweaked Sweden’s model, reserving two out of 14 months of paid leave for fathers. Within two years, fathers taking parental leave surged from 3 percent to more than 20 percent. “That was a marker of pretty significant change,” said Kimberly Morgan, professor at George Washington University and an expert on parental leave. If Germany can do it, she said, “most countries can.”

Companies

Companies, facing high payroll taxes and women and men taking leave in unpredictable installments, can be less sure. Tales of male staff members being discouraged from long leave are still not uncommon, although it is not fashionable to say so. Mr. Boklund said his office “was not happy” about his extended absence.

Small businesses find it particularly tricky to juggle absences, said Sofia Bergstrom, social insurance expert at the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise, which represents 60,000 companies. Worse than parental leave, she says, is the 120-day annual allowance for parents to tend to sick children, which is impossible to plan and which is suspected of being widely abused.

But in a sign that the broader cultural shift has acquired a dynamic of its own, a survey by Ms. Haas and Philip Hwang, a psychology professor at Goteborg University, shows that 41 percent of companies reported in 2006 that they had made a formal decision to encourage fathers to take parental leave, up from only 2 percent in 1993.

For many companies, a family-friendly work pattern has simply become a new ways of attracting talent.

Academic voices

However, worry that as men and women both work and both stay home with kids, a gender identity crisis looms. “Manhood is being squeezed” by the sameness,  argued Ingemar Gens, an author and self-described gender consultant.

Conversely, in invoking mothering as both identity and as practice, feminist philosopher Sara Ruddick wrote: “briefly, a mother is a person who takes on responsibility for children’s lives and for whom providing child care is a significant part of her or his working life”. This conceptualization considers mothers as a group of “genderless” persons, and the practice of mothering as one that could be equally embraced by women or men. This conceptualization considers mothers as a group of “genderless” persons, and the practice of mothering as one that could be equally embraced by women or men. A focus on responsibilities reveals how gender differences in parenting are deeply embedded in habitus, moral identities, embodiment, and in diverse spatial and time-framed contexts.

Conclusions

In perhaps the most striking example of social engineering, a new definition of masculinity is emerging. Many men no longer want to be identified just by their jobs and many women expect their husbands to take at least some time off with the children. A successful career and being a responsible daddy, it seems going to be a new kind of manly, which is more wholesome.

As it showed in one video we watched in GPS class, society is a mirror of the family, therefore, the only way to achieve equality in society is to achieve equality in the home. Getting fathers to share the “mothering” work is an essential part of that.

References:

[1]New York Times: In Sweden, men can have it all. Jun. 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/10/world/europe/10iht-sweden.html

[2]Andrea D. Gender equality and gender differences: parenting, Habitus, and embodiment. 2009. Canadian Sociological Association.

——KISSES

Posted by Jia LIU

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We Want Sex Equality

Hi followers !

Here I am going to talk about a movie that I have seen and that have really left its mark on me. It is called “We Want Sex Equality”. It is a 2010 British film directed by Nigel Cole. The film star is Sally Hawkins and it dramatises the Ford sewing machinists strike of 1968 that aimed for equal pay for women.

In 1968, the Ford auto factory in Dagenham was one of the largest single private employers in the United Kingdom. In addition to the thousands of male employees, there are also 187 underpaid women machinists who primarily assemble the car seat upholstery in poor working conditions. Dissatisfied, the women, represented by the shop steward and Rita O’Grady, work with union rep Albert Passingham for a better deal.
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However, Rita learns that there is a larger issue in this dispute considering that women are paid an appalling fraction of the men’s wages for the same work across the board on the sole basis of their sex. Refusing to tolerate this inequality any longer, O’Grady leads the famous 1968 Ford sewing machinists strike where female workers walk out in protest against sexual discrimination, demanding equal pay for equal work. What follows would test the patience of all involved in a grinding labour and political struggle that ultimately would advance the cause of women’s rights around the world.
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The strike is finally successful and leads to the Equal Pay Act 1970, the first legislation in the UK aimed at ending pay discrimination between men and women.

Historical accuracy

The women did not actually work at the Dagenham assembly plant but about a mile away at the River Plant (a collection of sheds). While the set used for the picket line has a sign that says “River Plant”, the dialogue always refers to Dagenham. The main character and strike leader, Rita O’Grady, is a composite character. +

The strike began on 7 June, 1968, when women sewing machinists at Ford Motor Company Limited’s Dagenham plant in Essex walked out, followed later by the machinists at Ford’s Halewood Body & Assembly plant. The women made car seat covers and as stock ran out the strike eventually resulted in a halt to all car production.
The Dagenham sewing machinists walked out when, as part of a regrading exercise, they were informed that their jobs were graded in Category B (less skilled production jobs), instead of Category C (more skilled production jobs), and that they would be paid 15% less than the full B rate received by men. At the time it was common practice for companies to pay women less than men, irrespective of the skills involved.
Following the intervention of Barbara Castle, the Secretary of State for Employment and Productivity in Harold Wilson’s government, the strike ended three weeks after it began, as a result of a deal that immediately increased their rate of pay to 8% below that of men, rising to the full category B rate the following year.

The Impact

The strike was, however, to have an enduring legacy. Spurred on by their example, women trades unionists founded the National Joint Action Campaign Committee for Women’s Equal Rights (NJACCWER), which held an ‘equal pay demonstration’ attended by 1,000 people in Trafalgar Square on 18 May, 1969.
The ultimate result was the passing of the Equal Pay Act 1970, which came into force in 1975 and which did, for the first time, aim to prohibit inequality of treatment between men and women in terms of pay and conditions of employment. In the second reading debate of the bill, the machinists were cited by MP Shirley Summerskill as playing a “very significant part in the history of the struggle for equal pay”. Once the UK joined the European Union in 1973, it also became subject to Article 119 of the 1957 Treaty of Rome, which specified that men and women should receive equal pay for equal work.

Sexually yours! — posted by Eva

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What is Feminism?

Hi followers !

Today, we decided to tackle with the notion of Feminism! Don’t get scared right now (!), we are just going to give you a definition and information about the subject.

”  The most straightforward definition of feminism says that is a movement for social, cultural, political and economic equality of men and women. It is a campaign against gender inequalities and it strives for equal rights for women. Feminism can be also defined as the right to enough information available to every single woman so that she can make a choice to live a life which is not discriminatory and which works within the principles of social, cultural, political and economic equality and independence.

Feminism can be also defined as a global phenomenon which addresses various issues related to women across the world in a specific manner as applicable to a particular culture or society. Though the issues related to feminism may differ for different societies and culture but they are broadly tied together with the underlying philosophy of achieving equality of gender in every sphere of life. So feminism cannot be tied to any narrow definitions based on a particular class, race or religion. “

— Sanjay Kali, doctor in the pharmaceutical industry who writes a blog about “the rise of womanhood”

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/1697184

Sexually yours ! — Marie & Eva

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The Beginning

Hi followers !

Let’s introduce you the aim of our blog!

First of all, in the framework of our course of Gender, Power & Sexuality, our main assignment is to create a blog about those issues.

That is to say that we are going to develop different points about Gender, Power & Sexuality, trying to create in you an interest not for the women causes but mainly for more equality between the gender.

The blog writers are only people from this course, so it means that all of us are students from Euromed Management in Marsella but all of us have different background with enable to open up to more diversity.

The team — Marie, Eva, Audrey, Jia & Alvaro

Sexually yours!